Welcome!

Recurring Revenue Authors: Elizabeth White, Yeshim Deniz, Xenia von Wedel, Liz McMillan, Carmen Gonzalez

Related Topics: @DevOpsSummit, Containers Expo Blog, @DXWorldExpo

@DevOpsSummit: Article

Compression: Making the Big Smaller and Faster (Part 1) | @DevOpsSummit #DevOps #WebPerf

The sharing of information in a fast and efficient manner has been an area of constant study and research

Compression: Making the Big Smaller and Faster (Part 1)
By Nilabh Mishra

How important is data compression? The sharing of information in a fast and efficient manner has been an area of constant study and research. Companies like Google and Facebook have spent a lot of time and effort trying to develop faster and better compression algorithms. Compression algorithms have existed since the ’70s and the ongoing research to have better algorithms proves just how important compression is for the Internet and for all of us.

The Need for Data Compression
The World Wide Web (WWW) has undergone a lot of changes since it was made available to the public in 1991. Believe it or not, the copy of the world’s first website can still be browsed here. Back then, webpages were very simple. Today, they are increasingly more complex and there is an evident need to have compression algorithms that are lossless, fast, and efficient.

There are several best practices that help optimize page load times. Here is a blog from that discusses webpage optimization. In this article, we will spend some time understanding the basics of compression and how it works. We will also cover a new type of compression method called “Brotli” in the second part of this blog.

Encoding and Data Compression
Let’s start by understanding what data encoding and compression are:

The word “compression” comes from the Latin word compressare, which means to press together. “Encoding” is the process of placing a sequence of characters in a specialized format that allows efficient data storage as well as transmission. Per Wikipedia: “Data compression involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.

Compression plays a key role when it comes to saving bandwidth and speeding up your site. Modern day websites involve a lot of HTTP requests and responses between the client (the browser) and the server to serve a webpage. With an overall increase in the number of HTTP requests and responses, it becomes important to ensure that these transfers are taking place at a fast and efficient rate.

HTTP works on a request-response model, as demonstrated below:

In this case, we are not using any compression method to compress the response being sent by the server.

  • The browser sends an HTTP request asking for the Index.html page
  • The server looks for the requested file and responds with the requested resource and a 200 OK HTTP status message
  • The browser receives the server’s response and renders the page

As we can see, in this case there is no compression involved. The server responded with a 300 KB file (index.html page). If the file size was bigger, it would have taken more time for the response to be sent on the wire and this would have increased the overall page load time. Please note that we are currently looking only at a single HTTP response. Modern websites receive hundreds of such HTTP responses from the server to render a webpage.

The image below shows the same HTTP request – response between the browser and the server, but in this case, we use compression to reduce the size of the response being sent by the server to the browser.

Today, complex and dynamic websites generate hundreds of HTTP requests/responses. This made it important to have a system which would ensure fast and efficient data transfer between the server and the browser. This is when compression algorithms like Deflate and Gzip came into existence.

Introduction to Gzip
Gzip is a compression method that is used to make files smaller for storage and faster transmission over the network. Gzip is one of the most popular, powerful, and effective ways of compressing data and it can reduce the file size by up to 70%.

Gzip is based on the DEFLATE algorithm, which in turn is a combination of LZ77 and Huffman coding. Understanding how LZ77 works is essential to understand how compression methods like DEFLATE and Gzip work.

LZ77
Developed in the late ’70s by Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv, the LZ77 method of compression looks for sequences of characters that recur in a text. It performs compression by replacing the recurring occurrences of strings using pointers that backreference identical strings, previously encountered in the text, that needs to be compressed.

The pointer or backreference is of the form <relative jump, length>, where relative jump signifies how many bytes are there between the current occurrence of the string and its last occurrence and length is the total number of identical bytes found.

Now let us understand this better with the help of an example. Assume, there is a text file with the following text:

As idle as a painted ship, upon a painted ocean.

In this file, we see the following strings: “as” and “painted” occurring multiple times. What LZ77 method does is, it replaces multiple occurrences of strings with the notation: <relative jump, length>.

So using LZ77, the text will get encoded in the following way:

As idle <8,2> a painted ship, upon a <21,7> ocean.

To encode the text, we took the following steps:

  1. Looked at the string and tried to find occurrences of the same “string” or “substrings”.
  2. Replaced multiple occurrences of a string with the notation: <relative jump, length>; The two strings: “as” and “painted” were replaced the multiple occurrences of the strings with <relative jump, length>.
  3. The string “painted” which would have earlier occupied 7 bytes (i.e. the number of characters in the word: “painted”) X 1 byte = 7 bytes was compressed to occupy only 2 bytes. 2 bytes or 16 bits is the size of the pointer or backreference.

HUFFMAN Coding
Huffman Coding is another lossless data compression algorithm. The frequency of occurrence of a string in a text file or pixels in images form the basis of Huffman coding. To get a deeper understanding of this algorithm, read this detailed tutorial that clearly explains how Huffman Coding works.

All modern browsers support Gzip compression for HTTP Requests. With Gzip, one of the most important question is what to compress. It works best with text-based resources like static HTML, CSS files and JavaScript resources but is not very efficient for already compressed resources such as Images. To support Gzip, the server must be configured to allow gzip compression.

The image above shows the impact Gzip compression can have on a text-based resource like a JavaScript file. In this case, we ran 2 instant tests using Catchpoint to the URL: https://code.jquery.com/jquery-3.2.1.js.

For the first test run, we did not specify any encoding to be used by passing the custom header: Accept-Encoding: identity along with the request. The first image shows no Content-Encoding being passed for the request.

In the second image, the browser is sending Accept-Encoding:zip, for which the server is sending zipped file as the response.

We can clearly see how Gzip can drastically compress the files to improve data transmission rate over the wire.

Catchpoint’s Scheduled tests also highlight the difference between compressed and not-compressed content loading on webpages.

In the screenshot above, we see the difference in downloaded bytes for static content (CSS, JavaScript) when using G-zip vs. when not using any encoding.

Brotli Compression
A new compression method called Brotli was introduced not too long ago. The Brotli compression algorithm is optimized for the web and specifically for small text documents. We will discuss more about this compression method and what is has to offer to the World Wide Web community in the second part of the article.

The post Compression: Making the Big Smaller and Faster (Part 1) appeared first on Catchpoint's Blog - Web Performance Monitoring.

More Stories By Mehdi Daoudi

Catchpoint radically transforms the way businesses manage, monitor, and test the performance of online applications. Truly understand and improve user experience with clear visibility into complex, distributed online systems.

Founded in 2008 by four DoubleClick / Google executives with a passion for speed, reliability and overall better online experiences, Catchpoint has now become the most innovative provider of web performance testing and monitoring solutions. We are a team with expertise in designing, building, operating, scaling and monitoring highly transactional Internet services used by thousands of companies and impacting the experience of millions of users. Catchpoint is funded by top-tier venture capital firm, Battery Ventures, which has invested in category leaders such as Akamai, Omniture (Adobe Systems), Optimizely, Tealium, BazaarVoice, Marketo and many more.

@ThingsExpo Stories
The best way to leverage your CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO presence as a sponsor and exhibitor is to plan your news announcements around our events. The press covering CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO will have access to these releases and will amplify your news announcements. More than two dozen Cloud companies either set deals at our shows or have announced their mergers and acquisitions at CloudEXPO. Product announcements during our show provide your company with the most reach through our targeted audienc...
JETRO showcased Japan Digital Transformation Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo® at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. The Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) is a non-profit organization that provides business support services to companies expanding to Japan. With the support of JETRO's dedicated staff, clients can incorporate their business; receive visa, immigration, and HR support; find dedicated office space; identify local government subsidies; get...
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that All in Mobile, a mobile app development company from Poland, will exhibit at the 22nd International CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO. All In Mobile is a mobile app development company from Poland. Since 2014, they maintain passion for developing mobile applications for enterprises and startups worldwide.
@DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo, taking place November 12-13 in New York City, NY, is co-located with 22nd international CloudEXPO | first international DXWorldEXPO and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world.
"Akvelon is a software development company and we also provide consultancy services to folks who are looking to scale or accelerate their engineering roadmaps," explained Jeremiah Mothersell, Marketing Manager at Akvelon, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
As data explodes in quantity, importance and from new sources, the need for managing and protecting data residing across physical, virtual, and cloud environments grow with it. Managing data includes protecting it, indexing and classifying it for true, long-term management, compliance and E-Discovery. Commvault can ensure this with a single pane of glass solution – whether in a private cloud, a Service Provider delivered public cloud or a hybrid cloud environment – across the heterogeneous enter...
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that ICC-USA, a computer systems integrator and server manufacturing company focused on developing products and product appliances, will exhibit at the 22nd International CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO. DXWordEXPO New York 2018, colocated with CloudEXPO New York 2018 will be held November 11-13, 2018, in New York City. ICC is a computer systems integrator and server manufacturing company focused on developing products and product appliances to meet a wide range of ...
More and more brands have jumped on the IoT bandwagon. We have an excess of wearables – activity trackers, smartwatches, smart glasses and sneakers, and more that track seemingly endless datapoints. However, most consumers have no idea what “IoT” means. Creating more wearables that track data shouldn't be the aim of brands; delivering meaningful, tangible relevance to their users should be. We're in a period in which the IoT pendulum is still swinging. Initially, it swung toward "smart for smart...
Headquartered in Plainsboro, NJ, Synametrics Technologies has provided IT professionals and computer systems developers since 1997. Based on the success of their initial product offerings (WinSQL and DeltaCopy), the company continues to create and hone innovative products that help its customers get more from their computer applications, databases and infrastructure. To date, over one million users around the world have chosen Synametrics solutions to help power their accelerated business or per...
In an era of historic innovation fueled by unprecedented access to data and technology, the low cost and risk of entering new markets has leveled the playing field for business. Today, any ambitious innovator can easily introduce a new application or product that can reinvent business models and transform the client experience. In their Day 2 Keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Mercer Rowe, IBM Vice President of Strategic Alliances, and Raejeanne Skillern, Intel Vice President of Data Center Group and ...
Founded in 2000, Chetu Inc. is a global provider of customized software development solutions and IT staff augmentation services for software technology providers. By providing clients with unparalleled niche technology expertise and industry experience, Chetu has become the premiere long-term, back-end software development partner for start-ups, SMBs, and Fortune 500 companies. Chetu is headquartered in Plantation, Florida, with thirteen offices throughout the U.S. and abroad.
Dion Hinchcliffe is an internationally recognized digital expert, bestselling book author, frequent keynote speaker, analyst, futurist, and transformation expert based in Washington, DC. He is currently Chief Strategy Officer at the industry-leading digital strategy and online community solutions firm, 7Summits.
Bill Schmarzo, author of "Big Data: Understanding How Data Powers Big Business" and "Big Data MBA: Driving Business Strategies with Data Science," is responsible for setting the strategy and defining the Big Data service offerings and capabilities for EMC Global Services Big Data Practice. As the CTO for the Big Data Practice, he is responsible for working with organizations to help them identify where and how to start their big data journeys. He's written several white papers, is an avid blogge...
"We are a well-established player in the application life cycle management market and we also have a very strong version control product," stated Flint Brenton, CEO of CollabNet,, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
It is of utmost importance for the future success of WebRTC to ensure that interoperability is operational between web browsers and any WebRTC-compliant client. To be guaranteed as operational and effective, interoperability must be tested extensively by establishing WebRTC data and media connections between different web browsers running on different devices and operating systems. In his session at WebRTC Summit at @ThingsExpo, Dr. Alex Gouaillard, CEO and Founder of CoSMo Software, presented ...
Most people haven’t heard the word, “gamification,” even though they probably, and perhaps unwittingly, participate in it every day. Gamification is “the process of adding games or game-like elements to something (as a task) so as to encourage participation.” Further, gamification is about bringing game mechanics – rules, constructs, processes, and methods – into the real world in an effort to engage people. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Robert Endo, owner and engagement manager of Intrepid D...
Recently, WebRTC has a lot of eyes from market. The use cases of WebRTC are expanding - video chat, online education, online health care etc. Not only for human-to-human communication, but also IoT use cases such as machine to human use cases can be seen recently. One of the typical use-case is remote camera monitoring. With WebRTC, people can have interoperability and flexibility for deploying monitoring service. However, the benefit of WebRTC for IoT is not only its convenience and interopera...
Michael Maximilien, better known as max or Dr. Max, is a computer scientist with IBM. At IBM Research Triangle Park, he was a principal engineer for the worldwide industry point-of-sale standard: JavaPOS. At IBM Research, some highlights include pioneering research on semantic Web services, mashups, and cloud computing, and platform-as-a-service. He joined the IBM Cloud Labs in 2014 and works closely with Pivotal Inc., to help make the Cloud Found the best PaaS.
Everything run by electricity will eventually be connected to the Internet. Get ahead of the Internet of Things revolution. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Akvelon expert and IoT industry leader Sergey Grebnov provided an educational dive into the world of managing your home, workplace and all the devices they contain with the power of machine-based AI and intelligent Bot services for a completely streamlined experience.
Cloud-enabled transformation has evolved from cost saving measure to business innovation strategy -- one that combines the cloud with cognitive capabilities to drive market disruption. Learn how you can achieve the insight and agility you need to gain a competitive advantage. Industry-acclaimed CTO and cloud expert, Shankar Kalyana presents. Only the most exceptional IBMers are appointed with the rare distinction of IBM Fellow, the highest technical honor in the company. Shankar has also receive...